Lesson N10 - Spanish Nouns

A noun means sustantivo in spanish , constitute feelings, actions, people, animals, things or qualities, there are two kinds of nouns: abstract and concrete.

Abstract nouns: Refer to qualities, feelings and actions that don't exist by themselves but are ,rather emboidied in persons and things. abstract nouns include, wealth (la riqueza), youth (la juventud), generosity (la generosidad), and happiness (la felisidad)

Concrete nouns on the other hand, are those that represent beings we perceive as existing on their own, even if that happens in our imagination. In spanish concrete nouns are divided into common nouns (comunes) and proper nouns (propios). A common noun represent akk members of the same group or species (eg. maestro, oveja, lago, casa). While a proper noun is an individual that is distinguished from others belogings to the same category ( e.g España, Julia, Maria, Amazonas).


GENDER OF NUONS:
Nouns are feminine, mascule or neuter in spanish. Nouns that refer to males are usually masculine, and those that apply to females are usually feminine. Anyway gender classification is done only for grammatical purposes, since there are a few nouns that are inherently masculine or feminine.

Although gender is usually determined by the ending of the noun, there are many exceptions to the rules, in which cases the article in front of the noun inducates the proper gender.

In general, spanish dictionaries indicate the gender of a noun by showing (m) for masculine or (f) for feminine, immedately after the entry. Note these example:

compas (m) = compass señal (f)= signal
luz (f) = light tempral (m) = storm

The Neuter Article "lo"-- Spanish Lesson N.9

An equivalent form in english is used with adjectives or adverbs used as nouns. In Spanish "lo" always precedes the masculine singular form of the adjective or adverb, this article refers to abstract ideas and has only one form.
Examples:
Me sorprende lo bonita que es ................ It surprises me how beautiful she is.
Lo malo de este carro son los frenos.........The bad thing about this car is the brakes.
Lo justo vencera ......................................... the Just (side) will overcome.
Me comporte lo mejor que pude .............. I behaved the best I could.
Me gusta lo dificil..........................................I like the difficult things.


Some expression in Spanish and how we can use them

1.- de lo... This expression functions as a superlative when it is followed by peor (worse), mas (more), menos (less), mejor (better).
examples
Lei un libro de lo mas aburido..................... I read a very boring (most boring) book.
Este medico es de lo mejor que hay en el hospital............ this doctor is the best there in the hospital.
Esta pelicula es de lo mas interesante........................This film is very interesting.


2.-Lo de in Spanish....equivalent expressions in English are: The subject of, what concerns, what belongs to, and others.
Example
Queremos ver lo de Shakira ................ We want to see Shakira's ( what she has or what concenrs her) First.
Me ha sorprendido lo de su coscina ........... The subject of his kitchen surprised me.

3.- Lo que ... This expression is equivalent to which, what or as far as:
Example:
Lo que importa es llegar a tiempo.... What is important is to arrive on time.
Lo que me preocupa es su ausencia....What worries me is his absence.
El vino tarde, lo que molesto a su familia........... he came late, which bothered his family
Lo que es eso, no voy a estudiarlo ........................ as far as that concerned, I won't study it.

4.-Lo.... que (how, how much),The expression is equivalent to how followed by an adjective or adverb in english, when and adverb or and adjective is placed between lo and que. observe how the adjectives agree with the nouns un gender and number in the example
example:
Es impresionante lo mucho que toma........... It's amazing how much he drinks.
Es agradable ver lo bueno que es su sobrino..... Its's nice to see how good her nephew is.
Me extraño lo generoso que es tu hermano...... It surprises me how generous your husband is.

Indefinite article forms-Lesson 8

the english articules like "a, an, several, a few, some" have four equivalent lent forms in spanish: un, una, unos, and unas.

singular..........................................................................Plural
masculine: un avion = a plane...................................masculine: unos aviones= some planes
Feminine: una lampara= a lamp...............................Feminine: unas lamparas=some lamps

Articule-noun Agreement
1.-The indefinite article agrees in gender and number with noun to which it refers:

Una planta adorna la entrada del jardin = A plant decorates the entrance to the garden.
Unas mujeres venian corriendo por la calle= Some women came running down the street


2.- The indefinite article before an adjective beginning with stressed a
It is put between the article and the noun if an adjective beginning with a stressed a, for feminine article is like this:

Estudiamos en una amplia aula que da al jardin.....We study in a big classroom that overlooks the garden


3.-The indefinite article with singular feminine nouns start with stressed "a" or "ha"

un aula=classroom.....un alma=soul.....un arpa= harp


USES OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE

1.- The indefinite article as a numeral
Meaning may be clarified in context or by pronouncing the particular word more emphatically when it refers to the numeral if it is necessary, but the singular forms of the article "un/una" are used to indicate the number one, which also has feminine form in Spanish.

Hay un cerdo en el establo...................There is a pig in the stable
Hay un cerdo en el establo...................There is one pig in the stable
El tiene una coscina en su casa............He has a kitchen in his house
El tiene una coscina en su casa............He has a Kitchen in his house

2.-the indefinite article used to refer to nouns that are not specified:
Lets take as a example of two children talking, one of them say to the other one:
Tengo un juguete nuevo......................I have a new toy.

The article in this sentence refers to any new toy, without specifying which one. In order to indicate a toy that is well known to the both children, the definite article "el" should be used:

Tengo el juguete nuevo......................I have the new toy.